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Do you know why glass is only transparent?

  • Author:Fanyu
  • Source:Www.glass.com.cn
  • Release on:2018-06-26
It is understood that glass is generally insoluble in acid (exception: hydrofluoric acid reacts with glass to form SiF4, which leads to corrosion of the glass); but it is slightly soluble in strong bases, such as barium hydroxide. The following article will introduce to you the principle of transparent glass.
One important reason: Solid material, if seen from the inside of the atom, is actually empty. Because in the interior of atoms, the volume of atomic nuclei and electrons add up to less than one-fifth of the atomic volume. Moreover, there is no evidence that atomic nuclei and electrons cannot be crossed by photons! Therefore, transparency is normal!
To figure out this complex problem, we must first clarify the following question: Why are some substances opaque?
For opaque substances, we can be divided into four categories:
1. Opacity due to the blocking effect of free electrons: This is the reason why the metal is opaque.
2. Opaqueness caused by light-absorbing substances: The excitation energy of electrons of molecules of this type of substance is relatively low. In the visible light range, there are often structures of benzene rings, benzoquinone, benzidine or other conjugated systems. This structure can reduce the excitation energy of electrons, making it easy for electrons to undergo transitions and absorb the energy of photons. This light is absorbed.
3. Opacity caused by the destruction of the structure of the transparent material. Such asglassIt is transparent, while the glass powder is opaque; the ice is transparent, and the ice is crushed and opaque. If a substance has structural features that do not conform to 1, 2, it can pass light, but if it has many small voids in its structure, it is white. This is why white objects are opaque.
4,1,2,3 reason mixed results. The opacity of many objects in reality is caused by this reason.
If a substance has no free electrons in its structure and no easily excited electrons, the structure of the substance is very tight, and there are no conditions such as many pores. That substance can pass through photons, which is transparent. So the glass is transparent!